Adult-onset diabetes, also familiar as Type 2 diabetes, is a common form of the illness. Also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, it can affect people belonging to any age group. Even children are not immune to it. Higher than ninety percent of people suffering from diabetes have type 2 diabetes. On the contrary, certain type 2 diabetes risk factors are subject to modification.
The moment we hear someone has diabetes, our immediate reaction is, “You need to adhere to a strict diet.” The number of diabetes patients has nearly increased fourfold over the last thirty years.
What is type 2 diabetes?
Adults are naturally more frequent victims of type 2 diabetes. Especially people suffering from obesity and those who lead a sedentary lifestyle have more chances of suffering from this disease.
The International Diabetes Foundation has highlighted four symptoms. The moment people find that they have these symptoms should immediately get themselves tested for diabetes. They are as follows:
- Urinating too frequently.
- Losing weight
- Feel lethargic
- Feel extremely thirsty.
Type 2 Diabetes Causes
Generally, type 2 diabetes starts with insulin resistance. It may sound like jargon to many people. So, let us explain. Insulin resistance is a condition where more insulin than usual is necessary so that glucose can enter cells. As soon as the liver faces insulin resistance, it starts producing more glucose than expected. If the peripheral tissues become insulin resistant, the uptake of glucose is impaired.
As a result, the pancreas is stimulated to prepare a higher quantity of insulin. However, after a while, the pancreas cannot produce sufficient insulin to prevent blood sugar from soaring.
Obesity is a common cause of type 2 diabetes. A drastic gain of weight leads to insulin resistance. Body fat impacts hormones. In turn, it affects insulin as well as glucose metabolism.
Genes play a crucial role in the type of diabetes. People who are related to type two diabetes patients stand greater chances of incurring type 2 diabetes.
Once a patient has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, doctors should monitor them closely. They need to chalk out a program of education to identify the symptoms of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and other complicated symptoms of diabetes.
Nutrition, exercise, and specific other physical activity are incorporated as a part of any type 2 diabetes patient’s lifestyle.
Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms
By recognizing the early signs of diabetes helps the patient to reduce the risk of complications. Some of the first signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are discussed below.
People having diabetes often get hungry because the food they eat doesn’t give enough glucose to the body. Glucose acts as fuel in our bodies. Hence, people with Type 2 diabetes feel hungry often, regardless of how recently they have eaten.
People with high blood sugar need to urinate frequently because the kidney removes the excess sugar by filtering it out of the blood.
As the person needs to urinate frequently to remove excess sugar because that body loses additional water. So this leads to a person feeling more thirsty than usual.
Tiredness in the body
Type 2 diabetes patients feel tired because of low sugar moving from bloodstreams to the cells of the body. That’s why the energy level of the person is short, and they get tired frequently.
Slow healing of wounds
Even a small cut or wounds take weeks or months to get healed up because high blood sugar levels in the body damage the nerves and blood vessels which impair blood circulation.
Pain or tingling in hands and feet
People having Type 2 diabetes can get pain or tingling sensation in hands and feet because high sugar levels in the blood affect blood circulation and nerves.
Dark patches on the skin
High risk of diabetes can cause dark patches on our body parts like around the neck and armpits.
Type 2 Diabetes Medications
Glucose is the most important means of providing energy for the body. Insulin is given for the prevention of diabetes. It is a type of hormone which is very useful for our body. It is a natural hormone made in the pancreas. Insulin is the key that opens the doors of our cells so that glucose can enter them.
Treatment is first resorted to by consuming medicines to control the high blood sugar level that is always prevalent in people affected by type 2 diabetes.
Even if the body makes insulin, doctors can still prescribe a type 2 diabetes meal plan to control blood sugar levels because the body does not react to the insulin produced. (5) A list of the types of different medicines used in diabetes and how they work is given below.
Medicines of this variety reduce blood sugar levels by delivering glucose properly to the cells. These medicines also prevent the liver from producing more glucose.
2. Dopamine Receptor Agonist
These medicines help control blood sugar levels after meals. They reduce the level of dopamine in the cells.
These drugs stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin during meals.
These drugs, such as meglitinide, stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin.
5. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
These drugs prevent starch such as pasta, potatoes, bread, and sugar from dissolving in the intestines, resulting in the digestion of sugar slowly.
6. Bile acid sequester
They are given to people who are unable to take other diabetes medicines due to liver problems. The way they work is not clear.
7. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor
Our body makes a compound GPL-1, which works to reduce blood sugar levels in the body. Whereas, GPL-1 dissolves very quickly, so DPP-4 inhibitors help them to stay in the body for a long time by preventing their breakdown. These drugs help to lower blood sugar levels.
8. Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor
The glucose found in the blood passes through the kidney, where it either escapes with urine or is reabsorbed into the veins. SGLT2 redirects glucose to kidney blood. SGLT2 inhibitors prevent the reabsorption of glucose in the veins by obstructing the work of SGLT2 and help to release this glucose into the urine.
These drugs help your body’s cells to make better use of glucose, thereby lowering blood glucose levels
10. Oral Combination Therapy
When your blood sugar level is not controlled by any medicine, the doctor can give you a combination of one or more of these medicines. According to keeping your blood sugar level in check, changes in your type 2 diabetes treatment may be required.
You should talk to your doctor before discontinuing diabetes medications or changing their dosage, as well as starting a new exercise or diet.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Recommendations of diet for people having Type 2 diabetes include vegetarian food or a vegan diet. Healthy diet plans include plenty of vegetables and no processed sugar and red meat. Food containing trans fat should also be avoided. And they should take a complex carbohydrates in their diet like oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, beans, rice, whole wheat, quinoa, and lentils.
Difference between type 1 and type 2 Diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes have a very high level of blood sugar, which is very difficult to control. In type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to use insulin properly. The differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes are as follows:
- Type 2 diabetes can lead to heart disease and stroke, but Type 1 doesn’t.
- In Type 1, the body attacks the pancreas because insulin is not made in the body, but in Type 2, the body does not produce enough insulin.
- Obesity can cause a risk factor in Type 2 but what causes the risk factor in Type 1 is still unknown.
- The signs and symptoms appear early in Type 1 than Type 2.
- Type 1 is treated by giving insulin to the patient, but Type 2 is treated by much other medication, exercises, and diet.
Uncontrollable factors cause type 1 diabetes. However, if you are wondering can type 2 diabetes be cured, then let us tell you that it cannot be cured but can be kept under check by sticking to a healthy diet, weight loss, and increased activity. Exercising regularly can also help in controlling the disease. Exercises help in maintaining sugar levels without medicines; this is the reason many doctors highly recommend them.